Through-Hole and Mixed-Technology Wave Soldering


A critical issue for board level assemblers is forming through-hole interconnections on circuit boards of ever increasing densities. This course provides an overview of through-hole and mixed-technology soldering and describes the principles of wave soldering, key process variables, wave solder processing, alloy selection and flux requirements, alloy contamination and corrosion, as well as wave solder process optimization.  Wave soldering with lead-free alloys will be discussed in detail including differences in process parameters compared to tin-lead solder such as solderability aspects, wetting behavior of lead-free alloys, and higher operating temperatures. 


This course is based on real-world consulting practice and provides actual case histories and examples where wave soldering has been successfully implemented.  It also describes the proper understanding of thermal requirements, clearance restrictions, as well as solder joint reliability issues that will insure complete knowledge of the wave soldering process.

Instructor:       Bob Klenke

Duration:         1 Day

Topics Covered:

 1)      Fundamentals of Wave Soldering

·         Solder joint formation

·         Capillary action and through-hole vertical fill

·         Vertical fill force model and thermal mass differential

2)      No-Clean Wave Soldering

·         Key variables of no-clean and lead-free wave soldering

·         Wave process parameters and time-temperature limitations

·         Thermal processing and flux residues

3)      Wave Soldering Process Audit

·         Lead-hole aspect ratio, lead projection and lead pitch

·         Quality assurance and documentation review

·         Preheating methods employed

4)      Flux Deposition

·         Liquid flux chemistries

·         Thermal aspects of flux activation

·         Solder joint and solder pot temperature correlation

5)      Thermal Profiling

·         Preheat temperature and typical wave solder profile

·         Time and temperature thru solder wave

·         Thermocouple attachment and instrumentation techniques

6)      Wave Dynamics

·         Wave solder flow diagram

·         Solder alloy wetting properties

·         Chip and laminar wave dynamics

7)      Board Impingement

·         Through-hole wetting characteristics

·         Contact time, solder dwell time and contact measurement

·         Immersion depth and system parallelism

8)      Preventative Maintenance

·         Dross generation and dross prevention

·         Preventative maintenance procedures, practices and frequency

·         Summary of base metals

9)      Solder Contamination

·         Solder alloy composition

·         Tin-lead and lead-free solder alloy contamination levels

·         Lead-free corrosive effects and erosion prevention

10)  Resolution of Defect Generation

·         Wave solder related process defects

·         Defect condition and preventive actions

·         Wave solder process optimization

Who Should Attend:

This course will offer an up-to-date review of tin-lead and lead-free wave soldering, in a how-to-implement outline, beneficial to personnel intending to put wave soldering methods into practice.  It is aimed at circuit board designers, process engineers and operational personnel who are required to bring about the necessary changes to maintain competitive assembly processes for through-hole and mixed-technology boards of ever increasing complexity.